The first seat of Chickasaw County was the unincorporated community of Bradford, with a log courthouse constructed to hold early county records. Three years later, in 1857, the city of New Hampton was platted; its location in the geographic center of the county led to the designation of county seat within a decade. The first small frame courthouse was finished in 1865, but destroyed by fire fifteen years later.
The second courthouse in New Hampton was built with stone and brick and opened in 1881. It served residents until 1929, when the current courthouse opened. The three-story building features a Bedford limestone exterior.