Plans for a public library in the Worth County town of Fertile began in the spring of 1967, when the town council appointed a board of trustees to establish a library. The board held its first official meeting in August 1967; space was quickly secured, and the first Fertile Public Library opened on October 21, 1967. Three years later, efforts began to raise funds for a permanent library building.
Construction on the current, $18,000 library began in July 1970, with many residents donating labor and supplies to build the brick and cement block building. Books and shelves were moved on December 3, 1970, with an open house held shortly after.